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integrative assignment

integrative assignment

integrative assignment Assignment Overview: The final paper for this class is a 12-15 page integrative assignment that applies your readings and class materials to a particular case or client system that you are working with in your field placement. The purpose of this assignment is to facilitate a deeper understanding of the assessment and problem-solving process. Through this assignments, you will demonstrate skills in assessment and case formulation. Please be sure to check with your field instructor about your case or client-system selection. Below, please find detailed information about and examples of the requirements for the assignment. Client Background Information (1/2 page) Please see the readings and activities in Module 9 for more on client background information. Identify and briefly describe your client (e.g., identifying characteristics such as age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, health, employment, and/or school status, and living arrangements; if a group, such as task group or school group, briefly identify each group member using these categories of information). Include how your client(s) came to the attention of your agency or its social work unit. Identify the reason(s) for the referral (what happened in the present that motivated the referral now?). Identify whether the client or client system was mandated for services or voluntarily chose to receive services. Include a brief summary of relevant historical information, depending on your particular client, family, or client group and how much you know about the client. This section is primarily past tense. The amount of detail of a client’s history varies by practice setting and the specific client situation. If you do not have a lot of background information, you can include what you have Presenting Problems and Problem-for-Work (2-3 pages) Please see modules 3, 9, and 11 for more information on discussing and determining presenting problems and problems-for-work. Discuss the presenting problems the client or clients brought and then describe one problem-for-work for your client(s). (Note: there may be several presenting problems on which you can work; summarize the situation and problems generally, and then, focus on one or two for the purpose of your work with the client and for this analysis. Remember, a problem-for-work may not be the presenting problem (Hepworth et al., 2017, pp. 202-203). The problem-for-work may be an underlying issue that you both agree on, such as grieving a loss or history of trauma. Include an analysis of the problem as the client sees it, as significant others view it, and as other service providers see it). Be as non-judgmental as possible for this section, and avoid labels (Hepworth et al., 2017, p. 242). Focus on description. It is important to capture attitudes and perceptions as they impact relationships and behaviors. Observations (1-2 pages) Please see Modules 4, 5, 9, and 11 for making observations regarding a client’s presentation. Include observations you make regarding the client’s presentation to you of the problem(s) – this includes only what you see, hear or intuitively experience yourself (i.e., observations about your own reactions and the impact on the client) (Bisman, 2014, pp. 104-105). Observations are NOT opinions, but what you see, hear, or intuitively experience or observe about yourself that contributed to the engagement process, selection of the problem-for-work, and development of your case theory (Hepworth et al., 2017, p. 248). For example, “every time I asked Maria about her relationship with her mother, she would change the subject, raising a bit of concern in me. She said she isn’t ready to address that. She did openly discuss how unhappy she was in her job, which led me to think that this may be where we can start.” Here, change theory can be used to inform the case theory – she is in the pre-contemplation phase in terms of recognizing she has a problem with her mother. A discussion of tuning-in with the client (Shulman, 2009) is applicable here as well as it relates to the engagement process. Case Theories (4-6 pages) Please see readings and activities in module 5 for more on case theory construction. Provide at least 2 plausible hypotheses for the cause (etiology) and/or maintenance of the problem-for-work. Make sure that your hypotheses reflect a person-in-environment perspective and you identify and incorporate at least two practice theories we have covered in class that inform your hypotheses such as, cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic, trauma-informed practice. Your application of the theories MUST be explicit (name your theories and describe the principles and what they say about your client and why they are important to inform your hypotheses). You must include relevant references from the readings here. Remember, case theory can change as more information is obtained and/or you have more experience with the client. But it is important to be able to articulate your emerging hypotheses to yourself, your client, and colleagues as you will be continuously testing out your hypotheses or case theory through the assessment and intervention processes. Case Formulation (1-2 paraphs) Please see the discussion and peer review activity in Module 12 to review your work on case formulation with your client. The clinical formulation is your working hypothesis for what is causing and/or maintaining the problem for work. This formulation is a theoretically-based explanation of the information obtained from a clinical assessment. Here is where you tie together the information you gleaned from the first integrative assignment with the case theory that you think best explains the problem for work. A clinical formulation contains the following components: It describes all of the client or client systems challenges and strengths. It proposes hypotheses about the mechanisms causing these challenges. It proposes the recent triggers of the challenges. The origins of the mechanisms. Please structure your clinical formulation to include each of these components. Here is an example: In childhood and adolescence, Jon was brutally teased and humiliated by his father (ORIGINS). As a result, Jon learned the schemas “I’m inadequate, a loser,” and “Others are critical, attacking, and unsupportive of me” (MECHANISMS). These schemas were activated recently by a poor performance evaluation at work (PRECIPITANT). As a result, Jon began having many automatic thoughts (MECHANISMS), including, “I can’t handle this job,” and experienced anxiety and depression (SYMPTOMS, PROBLEMS), with which he coped by avoiding (MECHANISM) important work projects and withdrawing from collegial interactions with both peers and superiors (PROBLEMS). The avoidance caused Jon to miss some deadlines (PROBLEM), which resulted in criticism from his colleagues and boss (PROBLEM) and led to increased sadness, feelings of worthlessness, self- criticism and self-blame, low energy, and loss of interest in others (SYMPTOMS, PROBLEMS). Jon’s low energy and hopelessness (PROBLEM) caused him to stop his regular program of exercise, which exacerbated his pre-diabetic medical condition (PROBLEM). Treatment Approach: (1/2 page-1 page) Please review modules 6, 7, and 8 for more on treatment approaches. Based on your clinical formulation, please describe the indicated treatment approach. Justify why you have selected this approach over another. If an integrated approach is called for, explain which practice theories you will be using and why. Reflection: Positionality and Structure (2-3 pages) Please see the readings and activities in Modules 2 and 14 specifically to review how you think about positionality and structure. Finn writes that “We construct human difference in terms of cultural practices, gender identity and expression, racial/ethnic identification, social class, citizenship, sexual orientation, ability status, age, livelihood, education, and other forms of identification. Our positionality or location in the social work is shaped in terms of multiple identifications” (Finn, 2016: 26). Discuss how your client’s positionality impacts the presenting problem and the problem for work. ? How do issues of structure influence the presenting problem and the problem for work? How will you address issues of structure with your client? Further, please also reflect on how your positionality shapes your interpretation of the presenting problem and the problem for work. What steps can you take to ensure that your positionality does not overly influence your work with your client or your client system? Finally, please identify one mistake that you made during the course of your work with this client this semester. How do you understand this mistake? What did you learn from it? TIPS FOR WRITING THE INTEGRATIVE ASSIGNMENT APA Style Writing and Referencing: The School of Social Work requires the use of APA Style Writing for each assignment that includes a title page and references (you do not need an abstract). It should be written in 12-point font. Deductions will be made for inaccurate in-text references and references on the references page as well as other writing and organization errors. Please see the syllabus for links to writing resources at Rutgers and guides to APA style. Important Components: According to Bisman (2014; 1994), the assessment is a mutual process of engaging the client and social worker in “gathering and organizing the evidence [or information] that advances from the particular or specific, to the universal or general, and then to the singular or individualized (p. 95). The assessment includes facts, observations, evidence from the literature, and interpretations or judgments (pp. 104-105). An assessment must be done before an intervention – and continues throughout the intervention process (pp. 94-95). It is important in writing a case study that the different categories of the evidence or information are organized and labeled with the respective headings. The evidence includes 1) facts (identifying information such as age, gender, employment, etc.; facts about problems; historical information; laboratory reports; research evidence, etc., 2) observations (non-verbal cues, the way the client dresses, conditions of community or house, what you hear and behaviors you see, and observation of your own thoughts and feelings), 3) evidence from the literature, and 4) interpretations or judgments (the social worker and other colleague’s hypotheses of what is going or – case theory; in some ways it is the synthesis of the observations, perceptions, and facts). See Bisman, 2014, pp. 104-106 and Hepworth, Rooney, Rooney, & Strom-Gottfried, 2017, 2017, pp. 186-215 for additional information. Verb Tense: Assessments present and organize information that use present, past, and future tense – presenting problems and referral information are generally present tense; historical information on health, education, employment, etc. are generally past tense; case theory incorporates past, present, and future; and observations are present tense, and sometimes future tense in terms of predictions, future worries, and/or desired goals. Tone and Language: As social workers, we are bound by a professional code of ethics, to use a strengths-based approach. As such, we are committed to communicating about our clients in the least stigmatizing and least pathologizing manner possible The words we use matter. A lot. Therefore, please be thoughtful and intentional in how you describe your client and your client system so that your description reflects our profession’s values and ethics. Please see accompanying handout Principles for Writing About Clients for more detailed guidelines. Module 2: Values and Ethics in Social Work Practice: Chapter 3, Excerpt, pp. 117-133 (Finn, Just practice: a social justice approach to social work), Practice Standards on Social Work and Technology: Changes, Challenges, and Ongoing Debates. Module 3: Engagement: Therapeutic Communication and Relationship-Building: Chapter 3: The preliminary phase of work Module 4: Engagement: Belief-Bonding and Strengths-Based Interviewing : Chapter 5: Respect and dignity in relationships Module 5: Case Theory Construction: Integrating the Micro and Macro in Assessment: The Danger of a Single Story ( https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_ngozi_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story) Social work assessment: case theory construction Module 6: Integrating Theory and Practice: Psychodynamic Theory: Psychodynamic practice 4 Main contribution, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Clinical Manual Module 7: Cognitive-Behavioral Theory: Cognitive and environmental interventions for gay males: addressing stigma and its consequences , Module 8: Trauma-Informed Perspectives & Applications: Trauma-Informed Social Work Practice: Practice Considerations and Challenges Complex Trauma in Children and Adolescents Marylene Cloitre National Center for PTSD NOTICE This material may be protected by Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S. code) , Evidence-Based Treatments for Trauma Related Disorders in Children and Adolescents Module 9: Assessment with Individuals: Exploring Challenges and Strengths Chapter 4: Evidence for knowledge-guided assessments Module 11: Intervening with Individuals: Strategies to Enhance Change: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3JUXQ4kkHs , Chapter 2: The Heart of Motivational Interviewing (pp.15-29) , Chapter 7 Excerpt: Action and Accompaniment (pp. 287-305) Module 12: Assessment and Intervention with Families: Out of the Darkness: Three Waves of Family Research and the Emergence of Family Therapy for Lesbian and Gay People , integrative assignment

Sample Approach/ Answer:

Client Background Information

The client in this case was a 14-year old boy of Mexican origin, living in the US with his mother. The client came from a single-mother family following a divorce between his parents when the client was 10 years old. However, while he mostly stayed with his mother, he would occasionally visit his father especially during weekends. The case began one day when the client was hit in the stomach by his father. One of the weekends when the client visited his father, he was caught watching gay pornography from his computer, an incident that made his father be furious. After hitting him in the stomach, he was yelled at and called names, including a “maricon” which is a Spanish description for anti-gay. After the incident, the client attempted suicide and was hospitalized. Additional problems arose from school, where his peers at school bullied him and called him names such as “queer” and “faggot”. His peers would also kick and trip him down as he walked in the school’s hallways. The client found this so humiliating and traumatizing. integrative assignment

The client’s history warranted attention from the social work department. Since he was young, it was the mandate of his mother to seek medical and psychiatric intervention for the boy. The attempted suicide incident was an episode enough to guarantee referral. Upon realizing that his son was gay, Juan, the father might have had the fear of stigmatization that came with it, especially since he was of Mexican origin. On the other hand, the school’s environment worsened the situation when the client was subjected to bullying and nicknames that were humiliating.integrative assignment

Presenting Problems and Problem-for-Work

From the case described above, there are a number of problems identifiable as well as problems-for-work. The main problem, however, is attempted suicide. Attempted suicide by definition refers to the act of an individual attempting or trying to take their own life, but do not succeed in causing death (Doel & Shardlow, 2017; Harmer et al., 2020). In the discipline of social work, the caregivers or social work professionals encounter, in many occasions, individuals who have attempted to take their own life and have failed to succeed in causing their own death. Addressing the issue of attempted suicide is delicate and requires more than just professionalism (Doel & Shardlow, 2017). This, shall be discussed at length in the next sections of this work. Social workers are play vital role in providing support to individuals who have been victims of attempted suicide by provision of emotional support, crisis intervention, and also attaching them to suitable mental health service centers to get appropriate care. In this case, the main problem that led to referral of the client was attempted suicide as already been mentioned. Attempted suicide is not a simple mental health issue, and especially when it is recorded from a young person as the client, who is just 14-years old. The complication comes in because the victim was still a child and the kind of therapy that he would need must be well-designed to ensure there is no relapse of recurrence of such suicidal thoughts in future.

On the other hand, there are also problem-for-work identifiable from this case. These are mainly the underlying issues that must have led to the real problem being addressed. For the client to become suicidal, he was exposed to a number of issues. First and foremost, there was the aspect of rejection from his parents, especially the father who, upon realizing he was gay, hit him in the stomach and yelled at him calling him names. The second problem-for-work was rejection and bullying by his peers at school who also not only physically abused him, but also caused emotional damage by yelling and calling him names such as “faggot” and “queer”. Attempted suicide is a serious issue that when not handled, could cause more problems to the client. Studies have shown that adolescents who experience suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides, or self-harm require urgent psychiatric support and attention (Salway & Gesink, 2018). For the client, family rejection and failure to support his sexual orientation, coupled with bullying from his peers at school due to his sexual orientation were the main contributing factors that led to him attempting suicide. For the purpose of this work, both family rejection and bullying by peers will be discussed at great depth and how they contributed to the client’s attempted suicide.integrative assignment

Family rejection, especially in this case, the father, is one underlying issue that led to the main problem of attempted suicide. As studies have presented, when a family or just a member of the family rejects their child because he/she has identified as gay, can cause detrimental effects on the child’s mental and sometimes general health and well-being (LaSala, 2006). Rejection from parents due to sexual orientation can manifest in many ways which include; exclusion, emotional distancing, and verbal abuse. There are also scenarios when parents can disown their own child for being gay. In this case, Juan, the client’s father, exhibited both physical and verbal abuse towards his son. Several reports have indicated that there are several consequences that a child might face due to parental rejection, which include, emotional distress, mental health impacts, homelessness, social isolation, negative impacts on identity formation, and in more serious situations, suicide. integrative assignment.

While this is the reality, as evident from the case provided, it is equally important to note that not all family members respond negatively when a child identifies as gay. In this case, while the father demonstrated bitterness towards his son for coming out as gay, the mother seemed not to have any negative response towards that. integrative assignment.

The second problem-for-work from the case was bullying and rejection from school, by the peers. Just like in the case of parental or family rejection, peer abuse and bullying that target individuals due to their sexual orientation, can cause profound and serious effects on both emotional and mental well-being of the victim (Salway & Gesink, 2018). The kind of abuse that target individuals due to their sexual orientation is known as homophobic abuse. There are several ways through which this kind of abuse can be manifested; physical aggression, spreading of rumors, verbal abuse, and exclusion among others (Salway & Gesink, 2018). In this case, the client was verbally abused and the peers exhibited physical aggression towards him. The effects that such abuses and aggressions can cause include; poor academic performance, emotional distress, social isolation, effects on physical health, and at worse, suicide.

There are three ways to look at the problem of attempted suicide; how the client sees it, how the significant others view it, and how other service providers see it. To being with, it is important to note that it is not easy to understand what goes on in the mind of an individual who attempts suicide. However, from this case, a number of things can be described to show how the victim sees the problem. The victim might see the problem as associated with past trauma, feeling of isolation, and lack of support from the loved ones.  Trauma happens because of the bullying that the client is exposed to from his peers at school. The client also has a feeling of isolation because the family has distanced itself and the peers who would otherwise been friends, were the torturers. Moreover, lack of family support especially after they learnt about his sexual orientation also compounded the already complex situation. All these together, can be viewed by the client as the main contributing factors to the problem of attempted suicide.  Secondly, the significant others, who in this case are parents, also have their own way of seeing or perceiving the problem. This in most cases, is associated with shock and disbelief, anger, guilt and self-blame, and concern about the client/victim’s wellbeing. Discovering that one family member has attempted to end their own life can cause serious shock and disbelief and family members try to understand the seriousness of the scenario. Guilt and self-blame can also become evident especially when the significant others start to question if there is anything they could have done to prevent the whole situation. Anger can also arise and be directed to the situation that led to attempt of suicide of the person who attempted suicide. integrative assignment.

Observations

 

There were a number of things that were evident during the interaction with the client. First and foremost, when asked about feeling of being gay, during the initial stages of the session, the client felt embarrassed and this prevented him from wanting to continue discussing the issue.  This embarrassment as exhibited by the client could have been caused by fear of judgment as he had experienced before. He seemed not to have any trust in anyone anymore concerning his situation because he had been judged harshly before and that is one of the factors that led him to attempt suicide. integrative assignment.

In most cases, an individual lack of trust in anyone is a sign of lack of self-confidence. Furthermore, this may be an indication of fear and vulnerability of disappointment. In social life, healthy and long-lasting relationships are based on the trust. This allows people to share ideas, communicate, and solve different issues pertaining to their self and individual well-being. A person who has trouble trusting others could have been let down or betrayed in the past, which made them wall themselves off. This reluctance to trust may have many causes, including shattered relationships, unresolved trauma from the past, or a general feeling of unease. It implies that the person can find it difficult to communicate honestly, to be vulnerable, or to trust in the kindness of others. This lack of trust may eventually affect both personal and professional relationships, impeding the growth of important issues. integrative assignment.

Another key observation made during the interaction with the client was that he seemed so lonely and isolated. He barely talked to anyone unless talked to and even so, he would only give short responses to questions asked. He preferred being alone and isolated, away from anyone. These could be signs of guilt and mistrust that he had about people, not knowing what they think about him. Loneliness and separation often have significant impacts on the mental health and wellbeing of an individual. The observed loneliness as well as the unwillingness to associate with different people in the above case, could have been a sign of rejection arising from the fear of being judged. From the case, the client has a difficulty when it comes to seeking for help or talk to people about the difficulty faced, this increases the feelings of alienation. In most cases, the coexistence of loneliness and mistrust/distrust leads to an overall feeling of despair and hopelessness. In the normal social environment, interaction between individuals often occurs automatically given the need or the desire to seek help or achieve a given social status in life.

Another observation is that the client seemed to have self-pity. He often used the words, “I am a freak,” and “I will never be happy (because I am gay).” These words demonstrated self-pity and hopelessness. He viewed himself as weak and someone who will never have friends or love from his family.

Case Theories

The client’s rejection by his father and peers at school is worsening his long term struggles with sexual identity and possible diagnosis with suicide behavior disorder as outlined in DSM-5. Studies have shown that about 79% of transgender people have had suicidal ideation while 43% of them have attempted suicide due to family rejection and denial of their sexual orientation (Ream, 2019). Similar studies have also shown that there is a probability of suicide of 0.75 among teenagers who are gay due to their family rejection of despising their sexual orientation (Ream, 2019).  Moreover, other studies have also shown that the majority of parents of color, reject their children sexual orientation or as members of the LGBTQ+ community due to stigma that is associated with it (Salway & Gesink, 2018). This could possibly explain why the client’s father, was uncomfortable with his son identifying as gay. The aspect of social isolation can also be described because it was evident during the sessions with the client. Social isolation is an aftermath of social rejection and feeling of hopelessness. Social isolation was evident through the client’s quiet behavior and self-pity. integrative assignment.

People need to exchange their thoughts and energy with others, as explained in systems theory. When individuals lack people to engage constructively with, they might show signs of withdrawal and depression (Bisman, 1999). The client lacked people to talk to about himself and who he was. He lacked the safe environment where he would be listened to and guided to become whoever he was in a holistic manner. His long term struggle with himself led to the suicidal ideation, and eventually, suicide attempt. Other than just the family, other elements of system theory include the peers or friends and the learning institution (Bisman, 1999). All these can have negative impacts and deny a person the chance to express themselves in a manner that help them to identify themselves. Depression can be used to describe a number of things (Harmer et al., 2020). In this light, it would be appropriate to identify key elements that can be used to label client as depressed. Some of the elements of depression evident in the client were social withdrawal, suicidal attempts, and feeling hopeless and helpless. According to studies, these are among the many elements that describe depression. integrative assignment.

Negative thought patterns include feeling hopeless, suicidal, and self-pity. These are characteristic of the cognitive-behavior theory (CBT) where an individual pre-occupies their mind with negative thoughts (Harmer et al., 2020). The client, because of this experiences in life, preoccupied his mind with thoughts of hopelessness and suicide as was evident from the problem leading to referral for therapy as well as the observations made during the interaction time. Conclusively, propositions in the client’s case pose a relationship between social rejection, isolation, self-identity, and suicidal attempt. The hypothesis here, therefore, is that client’s situation is highly associated with sexual identity crisis, that is compounded by family rejection and bullying at school. Correspondingly, systems theory and CBT have been referred to generally to social explanation and comprehension of client’s behavior.

Case Formulation

In his early teenage years, client started to discover his sexual orientation as gay, something that subjected him to rejection and humiliation by people, some so close to him like his father. The consequence of this is that client learnt the schemas, “I am a freak,” and “I will never be happy (because I am gay)”. These were activated recently when he became overwhelmed by how people including friends at school treated him, and he experienced suicide attempt. It is true criticism and physical abuse by his father and peers at school led to increased sadness, a feeling of worthlessness, self-pity, low-energy, self-criticism, and eventually attempting suicide. The client’s self-pity, and feeling of worthlessness made him stop associating with others and become lonely. integrative assignment.

Treatment Approach

Treatment/therapy approach for client shall have the following four dimensions; psychiatric evaluation, counseling and crisis intervention, psychoeducation, and family and social support. Psychiatric evaluation is an essential step towards provision of therapy as it would help to identify client’s mental health crisis and determine the most suitable care for him. On the other hand, family and social support means that both client’s parents and the school community is to be engaged in the process of providing care to the client (Shulman, Krause, & Cameron, 2009). The parents must be informed on the need to show love and support to their son and help him to grow in his capacity as a gay person. The school community must be made aware of people like the client who must be protected from stereotypes and bullies. On psychoeducation, the client must be educated on mental health and coping skills. Moreover, the client must also be educated on relapse prevention to empower him to manage his mental health better, to help reduce the risks of future suicide attempts. integrative assignment.

To help in providing treatment, two practice theories have been chosen; Cognitive-behavior theory and systems theory. CBT focuses primarily on the relationship that is there between feelings, thoughts, and behavior (Craib, 2015). This theory suggests that when an individual is helped to change their negative thought patterns, this can help them to change their behavior and emotional wellbeing. Through this theory, the client shall be helped to identity his and modify his negative behaviors and thought patterns (suicidal thinking). On the other hand, systems theory view people and their environment as interconnected system (Craib, 2015). The interactions between individuals and their surrounding must be emphasized as key components of a system. It would, therefore, be important to focus on the client’s family dynamics organizational/institutional structures like his school, and community structures to address the main problem that the client has.

Reflection: Positionality and Structure

The client’s positionality is one main factor that is pinpointed as what exacerbated the whole issue. Being of Mexican origin, the client was likely not to be accepted as gay. The majority of Mexican families, and especially men, such as the client’s father, view gays as weak and not real men in the society (Abreu et al., 2020). This explains why when the client’s father learned about his sexual orientation, he became furious and physically and verbally abused the client. Moreover, coming from a single-parent family, the client must have lacked an opportunity to see learn from a whole family. Visiting his father only during weekends might not have given him enough opportunity to learn to express himself to both the parents. On structure, the same aspect of origin can be used to explain cultural norms of the Mexicans (Abreu et al., 2020). As already explained, the Mexican family is viewed as one that has a mother and a father, and a deflecting sexual orientation/gender/sex roles might not be acceptable, at least from the narration of the client and his parents. That explains why the client’s father lacked words to describe what he felt when he learned about his son being gay. In most cases, parents becomes shocked when they learn negative behaviors of their children, this in most cases, arise due to trust they have put over on their children for a long time. integrative assignment.

At personal level, my positionality interprets the whole problem as unfortunate. In this time and era, the issue of sexual orientation has got into everyone’s ear and it is high we all accepted and supported everyone for who they are. Nobody should undergo mental torture to an extent of committing suicide because of rejection due to their sexual orientation. Remaining professional and following to the latter, ethics of social work are the only sure way to ensure positionality does not influence my work with the client. One of the mistakes I made was being overly emotional when I first learnt about the client’s trauma. This mistake clouded my thinking and reasoning, hence compromising my objectivity. integrative assignment.

Conclusion

From the selected case, the client was a 14-year-old boy of Mexican origin, living in the US with his mother. The client came from a single-mother family following a divorce between his parents when the client was 10 years old. Further, from the case, there have been a number of problems identifiable as well as problems-for-work. The main problem, however, is attempted suicide. Attempted suicide by definition refers to the act of an individual attempting or trying to take their own life, but do not succeed in causing death.  In his early teenage years, client started to discover his sexual orientation as gay, something that subjected him to rejection and humiliation by people, some so close to him like his father. The consequence of this is that client learnt the schemas, “I am a freak,” and “I will never be happy (because I am gay)”. integrative assignment.

References

Abreu, R. L., Gonzalez, K. A., Rosario, C. C., Pulice-Farrow, L., & Rodríguez, M. M. D. (2020). “Latinos have a stronger attachment to the family”: Latinx fathers’ acceptance of their sexual minority children. Journal of GLBT Family Studies16(2), 192-210.

Bisman, C. D. (1999). Social work assessment: Case theory construction. Families in Society80(3), 240-246. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1606/1044-3894.677

Craib, I. (2015). Modern social theory. Routledge.

Doel, M., & Shardlow, S. M. (2017). Modern social work practice: Teaching and learning in practice settings. Routledge.

Harmer, B., Lee, S., Duong, T. V. H., & Saadabadi, A. (2020). Suicidal ideation. https://europepmc.org/article/nbk/nbk565877

Klonsky, E. D., May, A. M., & Saffer, B. Y. (2016). Suicide, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation. Annual review of clinical psychology12, 307-330. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093204

LaSala, M. C. (2006). Cognitive and environmental interventions for gay males: Addressing stigma and its consequences. Families in Society87(2), 181-189. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1606/1044-3894.3511

Ream, G. L. (2019). What’s unique about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and young adult suicides? Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Journal of Adolescent Health64(5), 602-607.

Salway, T., & Gesink, D. (2018). Constructing and expanding suicide narratives from gay men. Qualitative health research28(11), 1788-1801.

Shulman, L., Krause, D., & Cameron, M. (2009). The skills of helping individuals, families, groups and communities. https://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/http://ndl.ethernet.edu.et/bitstream/123456789/34694/1/16.pdf.pdf

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