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Is Depression Over diagnosed?

Is Depression Over diagnosed?

Is Depression Over diagnosed?

Depression is a disorder associated with mental incapability, it mostly affects the people who are constantly moody and are always unhappy and do not look interested in the activities that take place around them. The individuals who undergo depression are not friendly and cannot stand talking with others for a long time. However, those who undergo temporary emotions are not described to be suffering from depression if the conditions do not last for a long time (Mazza, 2012). Depression is considered one of the major psychological disorders according to the American Association of Psychiatrists and is said to kill averagely five hundred people yearly. It, however, has not received the concern that it fits best because of the undermining that most people have taken in relation to the consequences it comes with (Rayones, 2015).

Over diagnosis is the situation where the disease symptoms as diagnosed by the doctor do not kill the patient during their lifetime it is a situation whereby most of the individuals who undergo depression are exposed to screening before they are put to clinical treatment and is, therefore, an expression of the disease to a number of the patient. The patient then cases, where there is no treatment in case the diagnosis, is correct, over-diagnosis of depression happens to many Americans given the circumstance of approach that it undergoes. According to the study by the Bloomberg School of Mental Health, six out of seven people examined during the study did not meet the criteria of depression diagnosis but ended up being diagnosed with depression (Zimmerman, 2010). This number is seen to be rising over time because of the nature of clinical and psychological examinations that people undergo (Copeland, 2105).This paper, therefore, will uphold the fact that depression is over diagnosed and gives unprecedented and clear evidence on why the condition is seen to be over diagnosed in the country.

Americans are over diagnosed for depression as claims a few studies were done in the recent past since most real world interviews and assessments done through informal tend to observe that most individuals diagnosed to be depressed are then found not to die of the condition in their lifetime. Samples of the research carried out to examine over diagnosis show that around 500 participants out of the total one thousand participants have accepted having been exposed to prescriptions of psychiatric nature even though they do not suffer from depression at all. This can be attributed to a number of factors that are expressed as a connection between the participants of the studies and the medical psychiatric professionals. The number of factors that are likely to have contributed to over diagnosis of depression includes the low prevalence of the condition in community settings which leads to clinician’s uncertainty and ambiguity concerning the presence or no presence of the condition in people. This is because there had been previous suggestions of under-diagnosis of such conditions in the community settings that further led to lack of information and research on such subjects. Now with the new suggesting over-diagnosis then it is clear that there should be an improved treatment of depression in the community and remote areas. Although depression is common in present age there has been a missing link in the accuracy of data extraction from the patients who suffer from the condition and sometimes it seems the diagnosis and treatment that is given to them is usually not accurate. Is Depression Over diagnosed?

During the last fifty years, there has been wide public concerns over the allegedly clinical practice of over diagnosis (Sarasino, 2016) of depression from both research centers to individual persons. Studies from the national registry have suggested an overlook at the prevalence of the condition due to the clinical clarity involving the issue of clinical depression. Psychiatric consultations have suggested various missing links in the conclusions that connect depression to certain characteristics in an individual. Record viewing intercepting from several consultations have clearly shown the disparity that exists in the conclusions made by clinicians in contravention of the real facts that lead to depression. Earlier in the trials done by scientists to clearly distinguish the conditions that are specifically limited to depression, there was a grouping of diagnosis in either endogenous however they later theorized that depression was actually caused by chemical imbalances. This would later cause confusion to following physicians in the need to realize full observation into the facts behind depression. This clinical lack of clarity has led to excessive use of medications that are antidepressant even though they do not meet the criteria for using such drugs. These according to the studies have revealed mostly the ambiguity of doctors in trying to diagnose the characteristics of depression leading to a high number of unconfirmed depressive symptoms. Historically the implications of depression have been quite numerous in the recent past with a few individuals alluding to the fact that most of the individuals describing them as subjective as it is not possible to accept that diagnosis are correct or otherwise. The national survey of drugs and pharmaceutical operations have recently exposed instances of the wrong dosage the and including diagnosis of the individuals. Is Depression Over diagnosed?

Philosophical advances in the knowledge of over diagnosis of depression relate depression to the syndrome analysis rather than purely distinct disease analysis and create an impression that symptomatology is really the cornerstone of the study of depression otherwise also called depressive nosology. It continues to view depression as an automatically single component and phenomenon and that its relative sub classifications depend majorly on the realization of the stages of complexity and their subsequent consequences. This, therefore, means that patients who receive collective analysis from a clinician perception of depressive mood could be associated with a minor depressive disorder that would later mature to a major depressive disorder. Sub syndrome disorders are generally not taken seriously in the study of depression since they are not pathologies as clearly being depression (Carey, 2015). The current reflective formula used in the comprehension of depression may also revolve around the analysis of DSM which is supplanted and are drastically distinguished and tries to grapple with an overlap in the confusion between phenomenological and biological boundaries and which the diagnosis focuses on the treatment. It further expresses the connection between the connection between the etiology and the cause of the patient’s illness as is observed in the patient. As far as this is concerned it is then to true to observe that there is no clear boundary defined between environmental and biological triggers in an individual who harbors the depression characteristics. The exposure of neurological networks to chronic stress is an area widely observed as autonomous in realizing the connection between neurological and depressive nosology. The departure of the DSM in the conception of depression in the population suggests that a number of individuals end up having the characteristics of depression.

Depression and the associated psychological disorders observed have shown tremendous difficulty in the issue of diagnosis and subsequent treatment of those who suffer from it. Research regarding the optimal treatment analogies for the same condition has shown difficulty in the knowing the causal patterns of depression and the way to treat it then. Although treatments have recommended the use of antidepressant monotherapy it is widely depression acknowledged that the use of antidepressant together antipsychotic for the treatment of acute and minor episodes of depression. However, clearly, there is a confusion ranging on the classification of the treatment methods (Patridge, 2014). This is because over the years there has been a wide debate on whether there is a distinction between psychotic depression as an independent syndrome or a representative of a severe form of depression. Secondly, there has been a challenge in the comprehension of the relationship between psychotic depression to bipolar disorder this is as a result of parental research showing the relationship between parental history of the disorder taken down to the children. This clearly subjects the disease to a more confusing area in terms of understanding the diagnosis and treatment. It raises the question of whether the disease is genetically or purely psychological (Mazza, 2012). Finally, according to, the National Institute of Mental Health, there is an indication of clinicians frequently missing the category of diagnosis of psychotic depression because of the inability to recognize the features of psychotic representation. The rate of missing the observations by the clinicians show a unique representation of the clinical problem in the population of individuals who suffer from the disorder. This makes it difficult for result analysis and presentation. Is Depression Over diagnosed?

Nurses who are in need of developing relationships between depression management service and the clinical interventions through evidence-based interventions normally tend to support patients with moderate or acute implications of depression. This kind of collaboration usually involves a number of people in the community including the community nurses and general practicing nurses. Inside the activities undertaken by the nurses, they tend to help in the teaching of individuals with depression and its symptoms, assessing the progress of depressed individuals. In this capacity, they also channel a proposed structure of support both clinically and materially for the individuals with the disorder and also help in the research analysis involving the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This creates a comfortable environment for the clinicians and other researchers. Finally, the nurses engage other health providers in achieving clinical effectiveness through enhancement of observation of medical records; analysis of symptoms and through ensuring patient satisfaction (Mojtabai, 2012).This allows the nurses to be part of the cornerstone of engagement between the disorders of depression and the nursing practice. Again it ensures that patients get and prepare well for the analysis of results as they tend to do more research on the developing conditions associated with the depression. Since nurses are the cornerstone of health provision, their involvement in safe diagnosis and treatment of individuals with the disorder cannot be underestimated. Through their participation in the programs set aside for this group, they enhance effectiveness to the system of health provision and hence form a major part of the health care provider for the individuals with the depressive disorder.

References

Carey, M., Jones, K., Meadows, G., Sanson-Fisher, R., D’Este, C., Inder, K., …& Russell, G. (2014). Accuracy of general practitioner unassisted detection of depression. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry48(6), 571-578.

Chilakamarri, J. K., Filkowski, M. M., & Nassir Ghaemi, S. (2011). Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a comparison with ADHD and major depressive disorder. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry23(1), 25-29.

Copeland, W. E., Wolke, D., Shanahan, L., & Costello, E. J. (2015). Adult functional outcomes of common childhood psychiatric problems: a prospective, longitudinal study. JAMA psychiatry72(9), 892-899.

Ferentinos, P., Paparrigopoulos, T., Rentzos, M., Zouvelou, V., Alexakis, T., &Evdokimidis, I. (2011). Prevalence of major depression in ALS: comparison of a semi-structured interview and four self-report measures. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis12(4), 297-302.\

Mazza, M., Mandelli, L., Zaninotto, L., Nicola, M. D., Martinotti, G., Harnic, D., & … Janiri, L. (2012). Bipolar disorder: ‘pure’ versus mixed depression over a 1-year follow-up. International Journal Of Psychiatry In Clinical Practice16(2), 113-120.

Mojtabai, R. (2013). Clinician-identified depression in community settings: concordance with structured-interview diagnoses. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics82(3), 161-169.

Partridge, B., Lucke, J., & Hall, W. (2014). Over-diagnosed and over-treated: a survey of Australian public attitudes towards the acceptability of drug treatment for depression and ADHD. BMC Psychiatry14(1), 1-9.

Ranøyen, I., Stenseng, F., Klöckner, C. A., Wallander, J., &Jozefiak, T. (2015). Familial aggregation of anxiety and depression in the community: the role of adolescents’ self-esteem and physical activity level (the HUNT Study). BMC Public Health15(1), 1-16.

Saracino, R. M., Rosenfeld, B., & Nelson, C. J. (2016). Towards a new conceptualization of        depression in older adult cancer patients: a review of the literature. Aging & Mental

Dowrick, C., & Frances, A. (2013). Medicalising unhappiness: new classification of depression risks more patients being put on drug treatment from which they will not benefit. BMJ347(7), f7140.Health20(12), 1230-1242.

Zimmerman, M., Ruggero, C. J., Chelminski, I., & Young, D. (2010). Psychiatric diagnoses in patients previously overdiagnosed with bipolar disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry71(1), 26-31.

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