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Theory Tables

PSYCH/645 Version 2

7

University of Phoenix Material

Theory Tables

Complete the tables as a Learning Team. Each table should be completed for its respective week, starting with Week Two. Submit the completed tables to your instructor in Week Five.

Week Two

Theory Key figures: Jonathan Key concepts of personality formation: Larry Explanation of the disordered personality: Amber Scientific credibility: Diane Comprehensiveness Applicability
Psychodynamic Freud, Jung, Adler, Erickson Freud believed that the adult personality was the end result of accumulated childhood experiences, and how they were processed. (“Freudian Theory of Personality | Journal Psyche,” 2018) Jung gave us concepts like (extroversion and introversion, archetypes, collective unconscious, and modern dream analysis. (“Jungian Model of the Psyche | Journal Psyche,” 2018) Alder gave us (“striving for perfection, or self-actualization”) (“Alfred Adler’s Personality Theory and Personality Types | Journal Psyche,” 2018) Erickson gave us the (“8 Stages of Identity and psychosocial development. (McLeod, 2018) Psychodynamic theory discuss an individual need to fulfill their basic desires or urges; people cannot help but act the way they do because it’s primal. While Freud, Jung, Adler and Erickson have some differences in what they believe drive human basic instinct; we are motivated by human instinct nonetheless. Research isn’t able to be replicated and thus not scientific In dealing with comprehensiveness, a theorist question should be whether or not all aspects of personality is covered or does it just focus on particular subjects that are easily explained by their system of theories. Freud’s theory of personality was described as exceptional in comprehensiveness as it addressed a wide range of issues such as, “literature, of mind, the relationship between persons and society, dreams, sexuality, symbolism, the nature of human development, therapies for psychological change” (Cervone & Pervin 2013, p. 157). The whole psychodynamic approach was based on Freud’s ideas. The human behavior and feelings are greatly affected by motives which are unconscious. Freud once said that the unconscious mind of the human being is the primary source of their behaviors (Kroger, 2006). Adult behaviors are rooted in their childhood experiences. According to psychodynamic theory, “events in our childhood have a great influence on our adult lives, shaping our personality. Events that occur in childhood can remain in the unconscious, and cause problems as adults.” Psychodynamic theory views that the human behavior is greatly influenced by the unconscious factors which human beings have no control over.
Attachment Freud, Bowlby, Robertson In Bowlby’s (Attachment theory) he tells us of the importance of a secure (mother and infant bond) The attachment theory personality is dependent on the relationship that a child has with its mother. The bond that is created in infancy determines how the personality adapts to others in adulthood. Too little of an observation period; assumes mother is the primary attachment; studies are limited to primary attachment Identifying the comprehensiveness of the attachment theory shows that there is no evidence of attachment styles being permanent despite continuity. Prior studies observe individuals in patterns with one style yet the participant may have several attachment patterns. There is a need for more evidence concerning actual behaviors of individuals from infancy to adulthood. Researchers use mostly self-reporting. Over the past decade, attachment theory by Bowlby (1973, 1988) plays a key role when it comes to counselling and psychotherapy. Attachment theory is a theory that has an influence on regulation and relationships among people. Individuals are likely to develop a secure attachment when they have caregivers (Cassidy et al, 2013). Such individuals are likely to develop a positive internal model for working for themselves and others.
Psychosocial Erickson Erickson gave us the (“8 Stages of Identity and psychosocial development. (McLeod, 2018) Psychosocial personality continues to develop into adulthood. While there is impact from the early ages, social and environmental experiences continue to shape the personality. Research failed to be replicated; terms of replication standards of deviation are not agreed upon Erikson differed from Frued in the he believed that people developed personality from their experience and not hereditary. He emphasized the instinctual aspect of personality development a, included the entire life cycle and major psychological issues, and identified people not only looked to the future and past as factors in developing personality. However, a criticism of Erikson’s theory is that it is too poetic when describing live and not as scientific. When it comes to psychosocial approach, it looks at how psychological factors and surrounding social environment impacts on individual’s physical and mental willingness and their ability to function (Levenson, 2004). A psychosocial approach can be used in various ways in helping professionals I health care and in the settings of social care. The approach can also be used by social science and medical researchers. People at times may not be entirely aware of the relationship that occurs between their mental and emotional wellbeing and their surrounding environment.

Week Three

Theory Key figures Key concepts of personality formation Explanation of the disordered personality Scientific credibility Comprehensiveness Applicability
Humanistic Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Clark Mustakas Maslow believed that people strive to their full potential by moving from basic needs to self-actualization. Maslow was a pioneer of humanistic psychology and gave us Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs.” (“Humanistic Perspectives on Personality | Boundless Psychology,” n.d.) Carl Roger’s humanistic personality theory points out the value of the self-actualizing tendency in forming a self-concept. Rogers felt that positive regard was key in the development of self-concept. Rogers believed humans create two (self’s) the ideal self, and the real self. (“Humanistic Perspectives on Personality | Boundless Psychology,” n.d.)

After many meetings Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Clark Mustakas developed the description of humanistic psychology as a recognizable “third force” in psychology. (“Psychological Perspectives | Introduction to Psychology,” n.d.)

Humanistic disordered personality is one who strives for their true self. The personality who responds to intrinsic motivation and positive feedback in order to continue self-development and growth.

 

Rogers and colleagues used solid scientific observations.

Therapy sessions were transcribed and filmed so that they could be assessed objectively by themselves and others.

Efficacy of client-centered therapy was tested. Butler and Haigh (1954) concluded that Rogerian therapy was shown to produce significant gains.

Used case studies and larger studies. Testable, objective measures of self-concept using the Q-sort are used so that therapy outcomes could be evaluated (valid). Some theories apply only to the Western World (reliable only in the western world).

Process of therapy is not systematic.

Formal personality theory is systematic.

Contemporary researchers use implicit (Rogers used explicit) measures of self.

 

The humanistic theory can be explained by theorist as examining self in the aspects or reality, needs, and acceptance. Maslow, Rogers and Mustakas.. Individuals are looked at in a positive light as being good or neutral but not inherently evil. Self-concept, human potential, and growth are important aspects in the focus of humanistic theorist, which were neglected in other previous theories. However, it is considered less comprehensive in the following areas because it fails to address biological bases for human nature, fails to address cultural or situation to situation variations, limitations on processes involving self and does not completely address phenomena that falls outside the conscious experience. Humanistic theories for instance the hierarchy of needs of Maslow’s supposes that people all over the place are motivated by the similar fundamental needs (Feist & Feist, 2009). The motivations to meet up these needs effects in behaviors that are steady with satisfying that need levels. A starving individual will be motivated to gobble just as a lonesome individual will be motivated to add to personal interface with another. On the other hand, motivation can be composite; a behavior of person’s might be a result of more than a few diverse needs. Physiological are lower needs and are additional external while higher needs are additional psychological and are motivated by inner factors (Feist & Feist, 2009).

Week Four

Theory Key figures Key concepts of personality formation Explanation of the disordered personality Scientific credibility Comprehensiveness Applicability
Behavioral Ivan Povlov,

BF Skinner,

Edward Thorndike,

John Watson,

 

Parsimony “Seeking the simplest possible explanation for any event.” Reinforcement and punishment   Behavioral theory runs with a conflict that the occurrences represent themselves enough to show high levels of probability yet leaves to much of a possibility of the counter to prove direct connections.   Profiling for criminal cases in the way of setting up potential suspects.
Cognitive Jerome Bruner,

George Miller,

Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser

         
Social cognitive Albert Bandura,

Carol Dweck

Hazel Marcus,

Walter Mischel

 

         

Week Five

Theory Key figures Key concepts of personality formation Explanation of the disordered personality Scientific credibility Comprehensiveness Applicability
Trait Allport, Cattell,          
Biologically oriented Darwin, James, Dunlap          

References:

Humanistic Perspectives on Personality | Boundless Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless- psychology/chapter/humanistic-perspectives-on-personality/

Psychological Perspectives | Introduction to Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wsu-sandbox/chapter/psychological-perspectives/

(PDF) Separation and divergence: The untold story of James Robertson’s and John Bowlby’s theoretical dispute on mother-child separation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26338875_Separation_and_divergence_The_untold_story_of_James_Robertson%27s_and_John_Bowlby%27s_theoretical_dispute_on_mother-child_separation

Alfred Adler’s Personality Theory and Personality Types | Journal Psyche. (2018). Retrieved from http://journalpsyche.org/alfred-adler-personality-theory/

Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2013). Personality Theory and Research (12th ed.). Retrieved from he University of Phoenix eBook Collection database..

The Freudian Theory of Personality | Journal Psyche. (2018). Retrieved from http://journalpsyche.org/the-freudian-theory-of-personality/

The Jungian Model of the Psyche | Journal Psyche. (2018). Retrieved from http://journalpsyche.org/jungian-model-psyche/

L, D. (2016, January 24). Attachment Theory (Bowlby) – Learning Theories. Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/attachment-theory-bowlby.html

McLeod, S. A. (2018, May 3). Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages | Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html

Levenson, H. (2004). Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. The Art and Science of Brief Psychotherapies: A Practitioner’s Guide, 157.

Kroger, J. (2006). Identity development: Adolescence through adulthood. Sage publications.

Cassidy, J., Jones, J. D., & Shaver, P. R. (2013). Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4 0 2), 1415–1434. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000692

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