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NRS 433V TOPIC 4 DQ1 AND DQ2

NRS 433V TOPIC 4 DQ1 AND DQ2

NRS 433V TOPIC 4 DQ1 AND DQ2

Topic 4 DQ 1
Start Date & Time Due Date & Time Points
Sep 19, 2022, 12:00 AM Sep 21, 2022, 11:59 PM 8
Compare independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. Describe two ways that
researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Support your answer with peer-reviewed articles.

Solved 

TOPIC 4 DQ 1: Independent Variables, Dependent Variables, and Extraneous Variables

Independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables are all important concepts in statistics. Independent variable is a variable that is not determined by the other variables in the statistical model. Dependent variable is a variable that is determined by the other variables in the statistical model. Extraneous variable is a variable that does not affect the statistical model but may affect the dependent variable (Bloomfield & Fisher, 2019). Extraneous variables are factors that can impact the results of a research study but that are not the focus of the study. They can be things like the temperature in the room, how much noise there is, or what time of day the study is conducted. It is important to try to eliminate as many extraneous variables as possible when conducting a research study, because they can distort the results. However, it is not always possible to control for all of them, and some may be impossible to detect. In those cases, researchers do their best to account for them by using statistical analysis.

One way that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables is by using a placebo. A placebo is an inactive substance that looks like the real treatment but has no therapeutic effect (Kaku et al., 2020). This technique is used in clinical trials to help differentiate the effects of the drug being tested from the effects of expectations or beliefs about the drug. Another way that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables is through randomization. Randomization means that study participants are randomly assigned to groups, such as a control group and an experimental group (Kaku et al., 2020). This helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are not due to chance factors.

References

Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association22(2), 27-30. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/INFORMIT.738299924514584

Kaku, A., Mohan, S., Parnandi, A., Schambra, H., & Fernandez-Granda, C. (2020). Be like water: Robustness to extraneous variables via adaptive feature normalization. arXiv preprint arXiv:2002.04019.
https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2002.04019

Topic 4 DQ 2
Start Date & Time Due Date & Time Points
Sep 19, 2022, 12:00 AM Sep 23, 2022, 11:59 PM 8
Describe the seven “levels of evidence” and provide an example of the type of practice change that could
result from each.

Solved 

TOPIC 4 DQ 2: Levels of Evidence

There are seven levels of evidence in research: Level I, Level II, Level III, Level IV, Level V, Level VI, and Level VII.  Level I is the highest level of evidence and consists of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These are the gold standard of research because they provide the strongest level of evidence that a treatment is effective. Level II consists of quasi-experimental and observational studies (Bell, 2021). These studies provide weaker levels of evidence than RCTs but can still be helpful in assessing efficacy. Level III consists of expert opinion and case studies. While these types of studies can be interesting, they provide the weakest level of evidence and should be interpreted with caution.

Level IV is based on observational studies, such as case-control or cohort studies. These types of studies can often give us a good idea about whether there is an association between exposure and outcome, but they are not as good at establishing causation. Level V is based on expert opinions or consensus statements (Naji et al., 2018). These can be useful when there is little other information available, but it is important to remember that these opinions are not always objective. Level VI is based on case reports or individual cases. These can be helpful in identifying possible risk factors or adverse effects, but they cannot establish causation. Level VII is based on biomechanical and surrogate endpoint.

There are many examples of type of practice change that could result from Level I, Level II, Level III, Level IV, Level V, Level VI, and Level VII evidence. Here are a few: Level I evidence could lead to changes in medical practice guidelines (Naji et al., 2018). For example, new guidelines could be developed for the use of a certain medication based on the results of a clinical study. Level II evidence could lead to changes in how healthcare providers deliver care. For example, if a study showed that providing education to patients about their condition resulted in better outcomes, healthcare providers might begin to provide more education to patients. Level III evidence could lead to changes in how patients manage their own health. On the other hand, one example of a type of practice change that could result from Level IV, Level V, Level VI, and Level VII evidence is increased use of shared decision making in clinical practice (Naji et al., 2018). Shared decision making is a patient-centered approach to care in which patients and clinicians work together to make decisions about treatment plans that reflect the patients’ preferences, values, and needs. It has been shown to be effective in improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. Another example of a practice change that could result from Level VI and Level VII evidence is the increased use of telemedicine. Telemedicine is the delivery of healthcare services remotely using telecommunications technology.

References

Bell, S. G. (2021). Step 3: Critically Appraising Evidence. Neonatal Network40(6), 402-405.

10.1891/11-T-757

Naji, F., Javidan, A. P., Khan, S., Srivatsav, V., Rapanos, T., & Harlock, J. (2018). Level of clinical evidence presented at the Society for Vascular Surgery Annual Meeting during a 5-year period (2012-2016). Journal of Vascular Surgery67(3), 951-959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.10.053

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