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What are some of the most critical health concerns we face in the 21st century

What are some of the most critical health concerns we face in the 21st century

What are some of the most critical health concerns we face in the 21st century, and why?

The particular possibility of a naturally occurring epidemic of significant proportions spreading over the entire planet, as well as the uncertainty about the safe nature of agricultural, livestock, industrial, and biotechnological processes involving microorganisms and their toxins, together with the potential intentional actions associated with them, together constitute one of the most significant concerns of the 21st century.

In the first decade of the present century, there have been at least five severe international health alerts, the occurrence of which, for various reasons, constituted a global threat. None of them has compromised human existence or had a high mortality rate (total number of deaths divided by the population) in quantitative terms. However, they have shocked citizens and authorities in all countries, and all have spread rapidly utilizing air transport. All have caused economic damage and discredit to the authorities, undermining the confidence of societies in their institutions and administration (Pokharel et al., 2019). Likewise, all of them have had a strong media impact, making headlines for weeks and triggering the dismissal of political leaders. In recent years, the COVID-19 pandemic generated a tremendous global impact due to the amount of infection and the level of spread of the virus, which caused many deaths (Manigandan et al., 2020).

In turn, what is coming in the future and the challenge to address the various events, together with chronic diseases in populations, governments must strengthen public investment because the gap is significant and continue to advance in the implementation of infrastructure. The advantage of infrastructure is that now the investment is multiannual. In addition, the investment includes the infrastructure, complete equipment, and human resources, which was only done after the facility was built and the staff was sought. This should continue and, therefore, allow quality improvement as well.

What is coming in the future and the challenge for the following governments is to strengthen public investment and continue advancing infrastructure implementation. The advantage of infrastructure is that now the investment is multiannual. Also, the investment includes not only the infrastructure but also the complete equipment and the human resources, which was not done before because first, the facility was built, and then the staff was sought. This should continue, and this would allow for quality improvement.

Additionally, Health Promotion is a field of particular relevance that Public Health agents intend to make visible (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004), whose complexity is singular given that it mainly addresses actions that escape from medical action (prevention and health care) and biological-environmental (health protection) and risk monitoring and management (epidemiological surveillance).


Graneheim, U. & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today; 24:105–12.

Manigandan, S., Wu, M. & Ponnusamy, V. (2020). A systematic review on recent trends in transmission, diagnosis, prevention and imaging features of COVID-19. Process Biochem; 98:233–240.

Pokharel, S., Raut, S., Adhikari, B. (2019). Tackling antimicrobial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Glob Health; 4:e002104.

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